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Guide to Pavement Technology Part 5: Pavement Evaluation and Treatment Design

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Publication no: AGPT05-11 Pages: 222
Published: 17 October 2011


Guide to Pavement Technology Part 5: Pavement Evaluation and Treatment Design provides advice for the investigation of existing sealed road pavements and the selection and design of pavement strategies/treatments.

The advice has been generally developed from the approaches followed by Austroads member authorities. However, as it encompasses the wide range of materials and conditions found in Australia and New Zealand, some parts are broadly based. Treatment selection is related to availability of materials and knowledge of their performance in any particular locality.

Part 5 covers pavement investigation, testing and evaluation, identification of causes and modes of distress and description of treatment options.

This third edition of Guide to Pavement Technology Part 5 is an update of AGPT05-09. It contains an inclusion of thickness design for stabilisation treatments, and has also been reformatted which includes realigning the contents page and the lay out to make the information more accessible for the reader.


Table of Contents

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION
2 PROJECT DEFINITION
  • 2.1 Project Scope
  • 2.2 Background Data
  • 2.3 Investigation and Design Proposal
  • 2.4 Acceptable Risk
3 PAVEMENT DATA AND INSPECTION
  • 3.1 General
  • 3.2 Historical Data
  • 3.2.1 Original Pavement Design
  • 3.2.2 Construction Details
  • 3.2.3 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Records
  • 3.2.4 Climatic Conditions
  • 3.2.5 Effect of Traffic on Past Performance
  • 3.3 On-site Data
  • 3.3.1 Visual Condition Data
  • 3.3.2 Site and Environment Information
4 INVESTIGATIVE TESTING
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Types of Forensic Testing
  • 4.3 Classification of the Causes of Distress
4.4 Distress Modes
4.5 Roughness
  • 4.5.1 Roughness Data
  • 4.5.2 Using Roughness Data
4.6 Rut Depth Assessment
  • 4.6.1 Rut Depth Data
  • 4.6.2 Using Rutting Data
4.7 Skid Resistance/Surface Texture
  • 4.7.1 Skid Resistance and Texture Depth Data
  • 4.7.2 Using Skid Resistance and Texture Depth Data
4.8 Surface Deflection of Flexible Pavements
  • 4.8.1 General
  • 4.8.2 Methods of Testing
  • 4.8.3 Selection of Test Sites
  • 4.8.4 Response to Load
  • 4.8.5 Measurement of Pavement Temperature
  • 4.8.6 Using Surface Deflection Data Collected on Flexible Pavements
4.9 Surface Deflection of Rigid Pavements
  • 4.9.1 Surface Deflection Data
  • 4.9.2 Using Surface Deflection Data Collected on Rigid Pavements
4.10 Pavement Composition and Material Quality
  • 4.10.1 Pavement Composition and Material Quality Data
  • 4.10.2 Use of Ground Penetrating Radar
  • 4.10.3 Using Pavement Composition and Material Quality Data
5 SELECTION OF TREATMENTS
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Treatments to Improve Drainage
  • 5.2.1 General
  • 5.2.2 Surface Drainage System
  • 5.2.3 Subsurface Drainage System
  • 5.2.4 Filter Layers
  • 5.2.5 Types of Pavement Drain
  • 5.2.6 Design and Construction Issues
  • 5.3 Treatments for Flexible Pavements
  • 5.3.1 General
  • 5.3.2 Treatments for Surfacing Distress – Seals
  • 5.3.3 Treatments for Surfacing Distress – Holding Actions
  • 5.3.4 Treatments for Surfacing Distress – Asphalt Works
  • 5.3.5 Treatments for Surfacing Distress – Recycling of Asphalt
  • 5.3.6 Treatments for Strengthening Pavements
  • 5.3.7 In Situ Stabilisation of Granular Pavements
  • 5.3.8 Granular (Mechanical) Stabilisation
  • 5.3.9 Cement and Cementitious Stabilisation
  • 5.3.10 Lime Stabilisation
  • 5.3.11 Bitumen Stabilisation
  • 5.3.12 Other Chemical Stabilising Binders
  • 5.4 Treatments for Rigid Pavements
  • 5.4.1 General
  • 5.4.2 Treatments for Surfacing Distress
  • 5.4.3 Bonded Concrete Topping
  • 5.4.4 Grinding/Profiling
  • 5.4.5 Treatments for Joint Distress
  • 5.4.6 Joint Seal Replacement
  • 5.4.7 Joint Spall Repairs
  • 5.4.8 Treatments for Structural Distress
  • 5.4.9 Slab Undersealing
  • 5.4.10 Crack and Seat with Overlay
  • 5.4.11 Slab Cross-stitching
  • 5.4.12 Full Depth Concrete Patching
  • 5.5 Design and Construction Considerations
  • 5.5.1 Community Attitudes
  • 5.5.2 Grade Line Restrictions
  • 5.5.3 Road Geometry
  • 5.5.4 New Pavement Abutting an Existing Pavement
  • 5.5.5 Shoulder Sealing
  • 5.5.6 Staged Construction
  • 5.5.7 Construction Under Traffic
  • 5.5.8 Risk, Design Sensitivity, Construction Tolerances and Degree of Control
  • 5.5.9 Availability of Plant, Personnel and Material
6 THICKNESS DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL OVERLAYS
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Flexible Overlays Using Design Charts
  • 6.2.1 General
  • 6.2.2 Characteristic Deflections and Curvatures
  • 6.2.3 Adjustment of Deflections and Curvatures to Account for Seasonal Moisture Variations
  • 6.2.4 Adjustment of Deflections and Curvatures to Account for the Testing Temperature
  • 6.2.5 Standardisation of Deflections and Curvatures
  • 6.2.6 Selection of Homogeneous Sections
  • 6.2.7 Calculation of Characteristic Deflections and Curvatures
  • 6.2.8 Design Periods and Traffic Loading
  • 6.2.9 Performance Criteria
  • 6.2.10 Permanent Deformation
  • 6.2.11 Fatigue of an Asphalt Overlay
  • 6.2.12 Granular Overlays
  • 6.2.13 Asphalt Overlays
  • 6.2.14 Design Examples
  • 6.3 Flexible Overlays Using General Mechanistic Procedure
  • 6.3.1 General
  • 6.3.2 Selection of Homogeneous Sections
  • 6.3.3 Back-calculation of Layer Moduli from Measured Deflections
  • 6.3.4 Estimation of Pavement Layer and Subgrade Design Moduli
  • 6.3.5 Overlay Design Procedure
  • 6.3.6 Design Example
  • 6.4 Asphalt Overlays on Rigid Pavements
  • 6.4.1 Design Example
  • 6.5 Concrete Overlays on Flexible Pavements
  • 6.5.1 Design Example
  • 6.6 Concrete Overlays on Rigid Pavements
7 THICKNESS DESIGN OF STABILISATION TREATMENTS
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Stabilised Subgrades
  • 7.3 Modified Granular Materials
  • 7.4 Cemented Materials
  • 7.5 Foamed Bitumen Stabilisation
  • 7.5.1 Introduction
  • 7.5.2 Factors Affecting Stiffness of Foamed Bitumen Mixes
  • 7.5.3 Determination of Foamed Bitumen Design Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio
  • 7.5.4 Fatigue Criteria
  • 7.5.5 Calculation of Allowable Loads
  • 7.5.6 Surfacing Requirements
  • 7.5.7 Design Example
8 ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVETREATMENTS
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Method for Economic Comparison
  • 8.3 Economic Parameters
  • 8.3.1 Initial Rehabilitation Costs
  • 8.3.2 Subsequent Maintenance/Rehabilitation Costs
  • 8.3.3 Salvage Value
  • 8.3.4 Real Discount Rate
  • 8.3.5 Analysis Period
  • 8.4 Road User Costs
  • 8.5 Predicting Performance of Treatments
  • 8.6 Example of Whole of Life Costing of Alternatives
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A IDENTIFICATION, CAUSES ANDTREATMENT OF VISUAL DISTRESS
APPENDIX B WEIGHTED MEAN ANNUAL PAVEMENTTEMPERATURES
APPENDIX C OVERLAY DESIGN CHARTS FOR ASPHALTFATIGUE
APPENDIX D USE OF OVERLAY DESIGN CHARTS FORASPHALT FATIGUE
APPENDIX E EXAMPLES OF STRUCTURAL OVERLAYCALCULATIONS
APPENDIX F OVERLAY THICKNESS DESIGNWORKSHEETS
APPENDIX G EXAMPLES OF THICKNESS DESIGN OFSTABILISATION TREATMENTS
APPENDIX H EXAMPLE OF ECONOMIC EVALUATION OFALTERNATIVES

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