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Guide to Road Design Part 4: Intersections and Crossings – General (2017 Edition)

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Publication no: AGRD04-17 Pages: 218
Published: 07 June 2017


Guide to Road Design Part 4: Intersections and Crossings: General contains guidance that provides road designers and other practitioners with information that is common to the geometric design of all at-grade intersections. It contains information on the types of intersections, the road design considerations for intersections and the design process for the development of an intersection layout. The considerations include the selection of design vehicles, types of road users and provision of public transport facilities. Guidance is also provided for pedestrian, cyclist, and rail crossings.

This second edition contains minor editorial and technical changes to Sections 1.3, 2.2, 3.1, 5.2, 6.3, and 8.1. Updates have also been made throughout this edition to include new and updated reference material, and cross-references added to other Guides. 

This edition also incorporates sections transferred from Guide to Road Design Part 4A that provide information relating to traffic management. This information has been included as Appendix A to Appendix D.

Tram facilities and taxi rank information has been deleted as it related to traffic management information that is better located in the Guide to Traffic Management.

Other changes to this edition include:

  • Section 1: Introduction: Updates to road safety including the Safe System principles.
  • Section 2: Types of Intersections: Additional information relating to the types of intersection.
  • Section 3: Road Design Considerations for Intersections: Additional information relating to the considerations in selecting a type of intersection.
  • Section 5: Design Vehicle: Updated information on design vehicles to align with the revised Austroads vehicle turning templates guide.
  • Section 6: Public Transport at Intersections: Updates to the bus facilities.
  • Section 8: Pedestrian Crossings: Additional information provided on the types of crossings.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Purpose
  • 1.2 Scope of this Part
  • 1.3 Road Safety
  • 1.3.1 Providing for a Safe System
  • 1.3.2 Contribution of Intersections to Road Safety
  • 1.3.3 Progressive Safety Updates to the Guide to Road Design
  • 1.4 Design Criteria in Part 4
2. Types of Intersection
3. Road Design Considerations for Intersections
  • 3.1 Road Users
  • 3.2 Provision for Large/Special Vehicles
  • 3.3 Topography and Land Availability
  • 3.4 Environment and Heritage
  • 3.5 Physical Constraints
  • 3.6 Work Health and Safety
  • 3.7 Other Considerations
  • 3.7.1 Pavement Markings and Signs
  • 3.7.2 Road Lighting
  • 3.7.3 Streetscaping
  • 3.7.4 Maintenance Considerations
4. Design Process
  • 4.1 General
  • 4.2 Basic Data for Design
  • 4.3 Location of Intersections
  • 4.4 Design Speed
  • 4.5 Road Cross-section
  • 4.5.1 Cross-section Elements
  • 4.5.2 Traffic Lanes
  • 4.5.3 Medians
  • 4.5.4 Roadside Areas
5. Design Vehicle
  • 5.1 General
  • 5.2 Design Vehicles
  • 5.3 Checking Vehicles
  • 5.4 Restricted Access Vehicles
  • 5.5 Visibility from Vehicles
  • 5.6 Design Vehicle Swept Path
  • 5.6.1 General
  • 5.6.2 Radius of Turn
  • 5.6.3 Clearances to Swept Paths of Turning Vehicles
6. Public Transport at Intersections
  • 6.1 General
  • 6.2 Design Vehicle
  • 6.3 Bus Facilities
  • 6.3.1 Bus Lanes
  • 6.3.2 Providing for Buses and Bicycles
  • 6.3.3 Bus Facilities in Medians
  • 6.3.4 Bus Stops
7. Property Access and Median Openings
  • 7.1 General
  • 7.2 Property Access
  • 7.2.1 Access Spacing and Proximity of Driveways to Intersections
  • 7.2.2 Urban Roads
  • 7.2.3 Rural Roads
  • 7.3 Median Openings
  • 7.3.1 General
  • 7.3.2 Location
  • 7.3.3 Design Requirements
8. Pedestrian Crossings
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 General
  • 8.1.2 Types of Crossings
  • 8.2 Mid-block Crossings on Roads
  • 8.2.1 General Considerations for Design
  • 8.2.2 General Crossing Treatments
  • 8.2.3 Kerb Ramps for Pedestrians
9. Cyclist Crossings
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Kerb Ramps for Cycling
  • 9.3 Path Crossings of Intersecting Local Access Roads
  • 9.3.1 General
  • 9.3.2 Path Approach Design Criteria
  • 9.3.3 Types of Crossings of Local Access Roads
  • 9.4 Path Terminals
  • 9.5 Intersections between Off-road Paths
10. Rail crossings
  • 10.1 General
  • 10.2 Sight Distance
  • 10.2.1 Sight Triangles
  • 10.2.2 Angle of Approach
  • 10.3 Horizontal Alignment
  • 10.4 Vertical Alignment
  • 10.4.1 Road Grading
  • 10.5 Cross-section
  • 10.5.1 Width
  • 10.5.2 Crossfall
  • 10.6 Pedestrians and Cyclists
References
Appendix A Intersections – General
  • A.1 Basic Forms of Intersection
  • A.2 Types of Turn Treatments
  • A.3 Intersection Selection
  • A.3.1 General Considerations
  • A.3.2 Traffic Management Considerations
  • General
  • Wide median treatment
  • A.3.3 Layout Considerations
  • A.4 Road Design Considerations for Intersections
  • A.4.1 General
  • A.5 Basic Turn Treatments (Type BA)
  • A.5.1 Rural Basic (BA) Turn Treatments
  • A.5.2 Urban Basic (BA) Turn Treatments
  • A.5.3 Basic Right-turn Treatment – Multilane Undivided Road
  • A.6 Auxiliary Lane Turn Treatments (Type AU)
  • A.6.1 Rural Auxiliary Lane (AU) Turn Treatments
  • A.6.2 Urban Auxiliary Lane (AU) Turn Treatments
  • A.7 Channelised Turn Treatments (Type CH)
  • A.7.1 Rural Channelised (CH) Turn Treatments
  • A.7.2 Urban Channelised (CH) Turn Treatments
  • A.8 Warrants for BA, AU and CH Turn Treatments
  • A.9 Intersection Treatments – Rural Divided Roads
  • A.9.1 Two Staged Crossing
  • A.9.2 Offset Right-turn Lanes
  • A.10 Intersection Treatments – Urban Divided Roads
  • A.10.1 Basic Median Opening
  • A.10.2 Urban Offset Right-turn Lanes
  • A.10.3 Intersection Layouts with Service Roads
  • Purpose and use
  • A.10.4 Staggered T-intersections
  • Rural staggered T-Intersection treatments
  • Urban staggered T treatments
  • A.11 Seagull Treatments
  • A.11.1 Rural Seagull Treatments
  • A.11.2 Urban Seagull Treatment
  • A.12 Wide Median Treatment
  • A.13 Channelised Intersections with Right-turn Restrictions
  • A.14 Auxiliary Lanes
  • A.14.1 General
  • A.14.2 Determining the Need for Auxiliary Lanes
  • Deceleration turn lanes
  • Acceleration lanes
  • Auxiliary through lanes
  • Other considerations
  • A.15 Traffic Islands and Medians
  • A.15.1 General
  • Use and restrictions on use
  • A.16 Right-Turn Treatments – Layout Design Details
  • A.16.1 Introduction
  • A.16.2 Opposed Right-turns
  • General
  • A.16.3 Right-turn Bans at Signalised Intersections
  • A.16.4 Right-turn Lanes for Cyclists
  • A.16.5 Rural Right-turn Treatments – Undivided Roads
  • Rural basic right-turn treatment (BAR)
  • Rural channelised T-junction – short lane type CHR(S)
  • Rural channelised T-junction – full length (CHR)
  • Left-right staggered T-intersection
  • Rural seagull treatments
  • A.17 Left-Turn Treatments
  • A.17.1 General
  • Types of treatment and selection
  • Rural channelised left-turn treatment (CHL) with an acceleration lane
  • Provision for cyclists at rural free flow left-turn lanes on bicycle routes
  • A.17.2 Urban Left-turn Treatments
  • Urban basic left-turn treatment (BAL)
  • Single radius left-turn and tapers – low-speed environment
  • Single radius left-turn without tapers – low-speed environment
  • Urban auxiliary left-turn treatment – short turn lane [AUL(S)] major road
  • Urban channelised left-turn treatment (CHL) with high entry angle
  • Urban channelised left-turn treatment (CHL) with acceleration lane
  • Provision for cyclists at urban channelised treatments
  • General
  • Free flow left-turn island with acceleration lane
  • A.18 U-Turn Treatments
  • A.18.1 General
  • A.18.2 Rural Roads
  • A.18.3 Urban Roads
Appendix B Signalised Intersections
  • B.1 General
  • B.2 Signal Operation Considerations
  • B.2.1 Traffic Operation at an Intersection
  • B.2.2 Proximity to Other Intersections
  • B.3 Intersection Layouts
  • B.3.1 General
  • B.3.2 Service Road Treatments
  • B.4 Traffic Lanes
  • B.4.1 General
  • B.4.2 U-Turning Lanes
  • B.5 Pedestrian Treatments
  • B.5.1 Pedestrian crossings
  • Turning vehicles
  • Pedestrian storage areas
  • Footpaths
  • Pedestrian fences, bollards and barriers
  • B.5.2 Pedestrian Facilities – Mid-block
  • Time separated (controlled traffic) facilities
  • Pedestrian (zebra) crossing
  • Pedestrian operated signals
  • Pelican crossings
  • Puffin crossings
  • B.6 Cyclist Facilities at Signalised Intersections
  • B.6.1 On-road Bicycle Lanes
  • General
  • Bicycle lanes on signalised intersection approaches
  • Head start and expanded storage areas
  • Example (a)
  • Example (b)
  • Example (c)
  • Example (d)
  • Hook turn storage boxes and hook turn restrictions
  • Left-turn bypass treatment
  • Bypass of T-intersection
  • B.6.2 Crossings
  • General
  • Separated path crossings
  • Right turns from off-road bicycle paths
Appendix C Cyclist Crossings
  • C.1 Unsignalised Crossings
  • C.1.1 General
  • C.1.2 Low Volume Streets
  • C.1.3 Refuges away from Intersections
  • C.1.4 Refuges within Unsignalised Intersections
  • C.1.5 Cyclist Priority Treatment at Path Crossings of Low Volume Streets
  • C.2 Signalised Mid-block Crossings
Appendix D Crash Types at Unsignalised Intersections
  • D.1 Australian Study
  • D.2 New Zealand Study
Appendix E Access Spacing
  • E.1 Introduction
  • E.2 Safety
  • E.3 Stopping Sight Distance
  • E.4 Intersection Sight Distance
  • E.5 Left-turn Conflict Overlap
  • E.6 Influence Distance
  • E.7 Egress Capacity
  • E.8 Consideration of Other Methods
  • E.9 Summary of Access Spacing Methods
  • E.10 Corner Clearance
Appendix F Derivation of Sight Distance Requirements at Railway Level Crossings
  • F.1 General
  • F.2 Case 1: Sight Distance Required for Give Way Control
  • F.3 Case 1(i): Decelerate and Safety Stop at the Stop or Holding Line
  • Sight distance S2L adjustment
  • F.4 Case 1(ii): Proceed and Clear the Crossing with an Adequate Safety Margin
  • F.5 Case 2: Sight Distance Required for STOP Sign Control
  • Sight distance S3L adjustment

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