Austroads Publications Online


Guide to Road Safety Part 6: Road Safety Audit

$96.80
$121.00

Publication no: AGRS06-09 Pages: 198
Published: 01 January 2009


This guide revises and updates the 2002 second edition of the Austroads Road Safety Audit guide. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the road safety audit process. Easy to read and implement, the guide is suitable for use by any person with a responsibility for, or an interest in, road safety.Designed for use by road safety and traffic engineers, police, academics, local, provincial, state and national government officers, clients, students, researchers, consultants and many others, the guide provides both a comprehensive overview to, and application of, the road safety audit process. Clear details of the audit process are provided, together with a number of audit case studies. The guide includes chapters on legal liability, costs and benefits, the audit process, safety principles and technical issues which need to be considered in road safety engineering. The guide includes updated checklists for use in assessing road designs and inspecting project sites at the different stages of a project's development. These checklists may be printed off from the electronic version of the guide for use in the field.


Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 Road Safety Audit
  • 1.2 About this Guide
  • 1.3 Building a Safe Road System
  • 1.4 Road Safety Audit is More than Checking Standards
  • 1.5 Costs and Benefits of Road Safety Audits
  • Cost of Auditing Road Designs
  • The Benefits
2 AN EXPLANATION OF A ROAD SAFETY AUDIT
  • 2.1 What is a Road Safety Audit?
  • 2.2 Why Conduct Road Safety Audits?
  • 2.3 When Should a Road Safety Audit be Done?
  • 2.4 What Types of Projects Should be Road Safety Audited?
  • 2.5 Who Should Perform a Road Safety Audit?
  • Skills
  • Experience
  • Independence
  • The number of auditors
  • 2.6 Organising a Road Safety Audit
  • 2.7 How is a Road Safety Audit Conducted?
  • The designer or client:
  • The audit team:
  • The designer or client:
  • 2.8 Road Safety Audits and Quality Assurance
  • Good, clear communication is essential in any road safety audit
3 LEGAL ISSUES
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 State of the Road
  • 3.3 Tort of Negligence
  • Duty of care
  • Exceptions
  • Standard of care
  • Causation
  • Damage
  • 3.4 Liability Arising from the Conduct of an Audit
  • 3.5 Rejecting Audit Findings or Recommendations
  • 3.6 Vicarious Liability
  • 3.7 Recent Changes to the Law
  • 3.8 The Future
4 THE AUDIT PROCESS, STEP BY STEP
  • Before you commence . . .
  • 4.1 Selecting the Road Safety Audit Team
  • 4.2 Providing the Background Information
  • a) A clear statement of the expected outcome from the audit
  • b) Site data
  • c) Plans and drawings
  • 4.3 Holding a Commencement Meeting
  • 4.4 Assessing the Documents
  • 4.5 Inspecting the Site
  • 4.6 Writing the Road Safety Audit Report
  • An audit report’s contents
  • (a) Project information
  • (b) Background information
  • (c) Findings and recommendations
  • (d) Formal statement
  • Framing audit findings and recommendations
  • Findings
  • Recommendations
  • 4.7 Holding a Completion Meeting
  • 4.8 Responding to the Audit Report
  • A. Procedures to deal with audit findings or recommendations
  • B. Responding to an audit report in writing
  • D. Implementing the agreed changes
  • Framing responses to audit findings or recommendations
  • Safety issues:
  • Findings or recommendations
  • Responses:
  • E. The need for a subsequent audit
  • 4.9 Closing the Loop – Feeding Back the Knowledge Gained
  • Objective: To disseminate the knowledge gained from an audit, for the wider benefit of road and traffic designers.
5 THE AUDIT OF ROAD DESIGNS
  • 5.1 General
  • 5.2 Feasibility Stage Audits
  • Before design starts – audit the design brief
  • A poor choice of design criteria can have an adverse impact on basic safety issues like sight distance and readability of the road. An audit of the design brief can save an enormous amount of time trying to fix up a poor design later. However, it does not
  • Inputting road safety engineering skills at the start: an alternative to a feasibility stage audit
  • This process does not negate the need for an independent road safety audit at later stages of design. A road safety engineer who becomes involved directly with a project’s design can be as prone as any other professional to missing issues through famili
  • Why audit at the feasibility stage?
  • 5.3 Preliminary Design Stage Audits
  • Why audit at the preliminary design stage?
  • 5.4 Detailed Design Stage Audits
  • Why audit at the detailed design stage?
  • 5.5 Pre-opening Stage Audits
  • Why audit at the pre-opening stage?
6 OTHER TYPES OF ROAD SAFETY AUDITS
  • 6.1 Audit of Roadwork Traffic Schemes
  • Typical issues
  • 6.2 Audit of Land Use Developments
  • Types of developments that warrant audits
  • Incorporating audits into the town planning approvals process
  • Before a feasibility stage audit
  • Why audit land use developments?
  • Typical issues
  • 6.3 Specialist Audits for Road User Groups
  • 6.4 Road Safety Audit of Existing Roads
  • Is it a safety audit or a crash investigation?
  • Should crash records be considered in the road safety audit of existing roads?
  • Do the road safety audit from the road users’ perspective
  • What is a hazard?
  • Road safety audit the whole network or parts of it?
  • Types of road safety audits of existing roads
  • Detailed single route or single site road safety audits
  • Broad network road safety audits
  • Following up the road safety audit
  • Why conduct a road safety audit of existing roads?
7 CASE STUDIES
  • 7.1 Feasibility Stage Audit
  • 1.3 Ranking of findings or recommendations
  • 1.4 Responding to the audit report
  • Recommendation: Increase median width at intersections. (Important)
  • 7.2 Preliminary Design Stage Audit
  • Background
  • 7.3 Detailed Design Stage Audit
  • Background
  • 7.4 Pre-opening Stage Audit
  • Background
  • 7.5 Roadwork Traffic Scheme Audit
  • Background
  • 7.6 Land Use Development Audit
  • 7.7 Road User Group Audit
  • Road safety audit report on a bicycle facility
  • Background
  • 7.8 Existing Roads – Single Route Road Safety Audit
  • Background
  • 7.9 Existing Roads – Network Road Safety Audit
  • Background
8 SAFETY PRINCIPLES
  • 8.1 Designing for Road Users
  • 8.2 Designing for Safe Speeds
  • 8.3 Designing for Older Road Users
  • 8.4 Designing for Pedestrians
  • 8.5 Designing for Motorcyclists
  • 8.6 Road Design Features
  • Visibility
  • Other issues at intersections
  • Narrow lanes
  • Shoulder widths
  • Median widths
  •  Demonstrate a need for the sign
  •  Ensure that the sign conveys a clear message to all road users under all conditions
  •  Ensure that the sign or its supports are not a hazard
  • Loss of superelevation
  • Concrete barriers
  • Night visibility
9 ROAD SAFETY AUDIT TOOLS
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Road Safety Audit Toolkit
  • 9.3 Road Safety Risk Manager
  • 9.4 Austroads Road Safety Engineering Toolkit
10 NOTES ON THE ROAD SAFETY AUDIT CHECKLIST
  • 10.1 The Purpose of Checklists
  • 10.2 When to Use the Checklists
  • Design stage audits
  • Other types of audits
  • 10.3 How to Use the Checklists
11 CHECKLISTS
  • 11.1 Master Checklists – All Stages
  • 11.2 Detailed Checklists
12 REFERENCES

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