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Guide to Road Safety Part 8: Treatment of Crash Locations (2015 Edition)

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Publication no: AGRS08-15 Pages: 154
Published: 06 November 2015

Guide to Road Safety Part 8: Treatment of Crash Locations contains practical, hands-on advice to help practitioners in road agencies investigate and treat locations on the road system which are experiencing crashes. By effectively treating these locations, through the application of effective engineering solutions, the number and severity of crashes can be reduced.

The treatment of crash locations and the process of road safety audit involve the application of road safety engineering knowledge and experience to make roads safer – one after crashes occur and the other beforehand. Treatment of Crash Locations explains the step-by-step process of how to identify crash locations, diagnose the crash problem and its causes, how to select a countermeasure which targets the problem, design a safe remedial treatment and establish its cost-effectiveness. The guide also provides information on sources of road crash data and how engineering improvements fit into an overall road safety strategy. Treatment of Crash Locations complements the Austroads Guide to Road Safety Part 6: Road Safety Audit and Part 7: Road Network Crash Risk Assessment and Management.

The structure of this second edition of the Guide has been substantially revised. Other significant changes include: increased linkages to and inclusion of ‘proactive’ measures; added information on developing a program to address crash risk; inclusion of greater detail on the Safe System approach; additional countermeasures added to Table 4.4 to Table 4.7; updating terminology to use ‘crash modification factors’ instead of ‘crash reduction factors’; increased focus on route reviews in Section 1.5.4; and commentary has been added in Sections 2.1 and 3.1.2 on prioritising FSI crashes over other crashes.

A template of the blank factor matrix form (provided in Appendix C) can be downloaded as a Microsoft Word file. 

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Purpose of the Guide
  • 1.2. Changes in this Edition
  • 1.3. Risk Assessment and Management: Linking ‘Reactive’ and ‘Proactive’ Safety Approaches
  • 1.4. Developing a Program to Address High Crash Risk Locations
  • 1.5. Taking Action to Improve Road Safety
  • 1.5.1. The Countermeasure Approach and the Role of Infrastructure
  • 1.5.2. The Safe System Approach
  • 1.5.3. Crash Risk
  • 1.5.4. What is a Crash Location?
  • 1.5.5. Treating Crash Locations
  • 1.5.6. Who Should Investigate Crash Locations and Develop Solutions?
  • 1.5.7. What are road safety engineering skills?
  • 1.6. How to Use this Guide
  • 1.7. Steps in the Crash Location Treatment Process
  • 1.7.1. The Steps
2. Road Crash Data
  • 2.1. Importance of Crash and Road Data
  • 2.2. Data Sources and Codes
  • 2.2.1. Minimum Reporting and Coding Criteria
  • 2.3. Sources of Crash Data
  • 2.3.1. Purposes of data collection
  • 2.4. Technology Available for Data Collection
  • To improve the accuracy of location information
  • To improve the accuracy and completeness of crash data
  • 2.5. Limitations and Accuracy of Crash Data
  • 2.5.1. Coding of crash types – DCAs, RUMs and VMCs
3. Identifying Crash Locations
  • 3.1. Defining the Locations
  • 3.1.1. Deciding on a Time Period
  • 3.1.2. Criteria for Selecting Locations to Investigate for Countermeasures
  • 3.1.3. Using a Threshold Method
  • 3.1.4. Chance Variation
  • 3.2. Intersections
  • 3.3. Routes
  • 3.4. Areas of the Road Network
  • 3.5. Mass Action
4. Diagnosing the Crash Problem and Selecting Treatments
  • Analysis of crash data
  • Obtain other relevant information
  • Inspect the site (or route or area)
  • Finalise the assessment and draw conclusions
  • 4.1. Analysis of Crash Data and Interpretation
  • Examine crash types (DCA or other similar codes)
  • Construct a crash factor matrix
  • Draw a collision diagram
  • Look for common factors
  • Writing the preliminary report
  • 4.2. Other Relevant Information
  • 4.3. Site Investigation
  • Drive through the location
  • Inspect the location
  • Consider driver behaviour
  • Identifying the cause of the crash
  • 4.4. Identification of Crash Causation and Crash Severity Factors
  • Draw conclusions
  • Write a crash summary report
  • 4.4.1. Applying the Process to Area Studies and Mass Action Programs
  • 4.5. Countermeasure Selection and Design
  • Safe System treatments
  • Speed management
  • Match the solutions to the problems
  • Austroads Road Safety Engineering Toolkit
  • Select the solutions
  • 4.6. Crash Modification Factors
  • Multiple treatments
  • Step 1: Select the most appropriate countermeasure/s
  • Step 2: Apply CMFs
  • Documentation
  • 4.7. Implementing the Treatment
  • 4.7.1. Designing a Safe Remedial Treatment
  • 4.7.2. Implementing the Treatment
5. Economic Appraisal
  • 5.1. Objectives
  • 5.2. Cost of Crashes and Remedial Treatment Options
  • 5.2.1. Treatment Options
  • 5.2.2. Cost of Crashes
  • 5.3. Calculating the Costs and Benefits
  • 5.3.1. Key Parameters
  • 5.3.2. Discounting
  • 5.3.3. Calculating Costs and Benefits
  • 5.4. Ranking the Treatment of Crash Locations
  • A useful checklist
  • 5.5. Presenting the Results
  • 5.6. Applying to Routes, Areas and Mass Actions
  • Routes and areas
  • Mass actions
  • 5.7. Post-completion Evaluation
  • 5.8. Alternatives to Benefit Cost Approach
  • The goals achievement approach to project appraisal
  • Cost-effectiveness
6. Monitoring and Evaluation
  • 6.1. Purpose
  • 6.2. Monitoring and Evaluation Methods
  • 6.2.1. Statistical Analysis
  • 6.3. Issues for Consideration
  • 6.3.1. Planning before Treatment for Monitoring Afterwards
  • 6.3.2. Threats to the Validity of Evaluation
7. Preparing a Crash Report
  • 7.1. Structure
  • Cover
  • Introduction
  • Data analysis
  • Contributing crash factors – deduced from the data analysis and site inspection
  • Crash countermeasures
  • Economic appraisal
  • Appendices

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