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Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings

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Publication no: AGTM06-13 Pages: 202
Published: 29 April 2013


Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings is concerned with traffic management at all types of intersections where the various road users must join or cross another stream of traffic. It focuses on traffic management issues and treatments related to intersections, interchanges and crossings but does not provide dimensions or other details for the design of treatments as these are provided in the Austroads Guide to Road Design: Part 4. Traffic management at intersections may be influenced by the approaches to them, and road sections between intersections. Guidance on traffic management on road sections is provided in the Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 5: Road Management.

Guide to Traffic Management Part 6 presents detailed information and guidelines relating to the factors that need to be considered in the selection of an appropriate type of intersection and in the functional design of intersections. It describes the appropriate use and design of the various intersection types and traffic management techniques that are applied to meet traffic management objectives, and provide efficient and safe intersections. Part 6 considers the needs of all road users including pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, heavy vehicles and public transport.

Key updates in the 2013 edition include:

  • Realignment of material related to traffic signals, primarily with information discussed in the Guide to Traffic Management Part 9: Traffic Operations
  • Addition of material on types of intersections, relocated from the Guide to Road Design Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections
  • Consideration of other types of intersections such as signalised roundabouts and unconventional intersection design
  • Additional considerations for topics such as intersections near rail level crossings and pedestrian crossings at signalised facilities

Updating Guide to Traffic Management Part 6

In June 2014 Austroads released a report Development of Guide Content for Managed Motorways

The report recommends including Section 5.6 (pg 64-68) of the report, which provides information about the operation of ramp signals, into section 6.9 of the Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 6.

It is anticipated that this section will be updated in the next edition of the Guide. 


Table of Contents

1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Scope of this Guide
  • 1.2 Second Edition of Part 6 of the Guide to Traffic Management
  • 1.3 Traffic Management Objectives
  • 1.4 Safety Objectives
2 Selection of Intersection Type
  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Types of Intersection
  • 2.2.1 Considerations
  • 2.2.2 Basic Turn Treatments (Type BA)
  • 2.2.3 Auxiliary Lane Turn Treatments (Type AU)
  • 2.2.4 Channelised Turn Treatments (Type CH)
  • 2.2.5 Intersection Treatments – Rural Divided Roads
  • 2.2.6 Intersection Treatments – Urban Divided Roads
  • 2.2.7 Staggered T-intersections
  • 2.2.8 Seagull Treatments
  • 2.2.9 Wide Median Treatments
  • 2.2.10 Channelised Intersections with Right-turn Restrictions
  • 2.3 Intersection Selection
  • 2.3.1 Introduction
  • 2.3.2 Selection Process
  • 2.3.3 Assessment of Intersection Control Options
  • 2.3.4 Intersection Type Selection – Key Traffic Management Considerations
  • 2.3.5 Determining the Need for Auxiliary Lanes
  • 2.3.6 Warrants for BA, AU and CH Turn Treatments
  • 2.3.7 Wide Median Treatment – Traffic Management Considerations
  • 2.4 Evaluation of Options
3 Unsignalised Intersections
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Traffic Controls
  • 3.2.1 General
  • 3.2.2 Stop Signs and Give Way Signs
  • 3.3 Intersection Performance
  • 3.3.1 Intersection Capacity and Flow
  • 3.3.2 Improving Traffic Flow Performance
  • 3.3.3 Safety
  • 3.3.4 Environmental Considerations
  • 3.3.5 Road Lighting
  • 3.4 Road User Considerations
  • 3.5 Traffic Control Devices
4 Roundabouts
  • 4.1 General
  • 4.2 Use of Roundabouts
  • 4.3 Performance
  • 4.3.1 Safety
  • 4.3.2 Traffic Performance
  • 4.4 Road Space Allocation and Lane Management
  • 4.4.1 General
  • 4.4.2 Cyclists
  • 4.4.3 Pedestrians
  • 4.5 Functional Design
  • 4.5.1 General
  • 4.5.2 Number of Legs
  • 4.5.3 Key Design Elements
  • 4.5.4 Entry Curvature and Deflection
  • 4.5.5 Wide Streets and T-intersections
  • 4.5.6 Sight Distance
  • 4.5.7 Signs and Line Marking
  • 4.5.8 Landscaping and Road Furniture
  • 4.5.9 Lighting
  • 4.6 Signalised Roundabouts
  • 4.6.1 General
  • 4.6.2 Metering in Advance of Roundabouts
  • 4.6.3 Signalisation at Junction of Roundabout Entry and Circulating Carriageway
5 Signalised Intersections
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Functional Layout
  • 5.3 Road Space Allocation
  • 5.3.1 Introduction
  • 5.3.2 Urban Arterial Road Signalised Intersection Approaches
  • 5.3.3 Local Road Approaches to Signalised Intersections
  • 5.4 Lane Management
  • 5.5 Traffic Signal Operation
  • 5.5.1 Signal Phasing
  • 5.5.2 Signal Timings
  • 5.5.3 Coordination of Traffic Signals
  • 5.5.4 Traffic Detection
  • 5.6 Signs and Road Markings
  • 5.7 Road Lighting
6 Interchanges
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Terminology
  • 6.2 Planning Considerations
  • 6.2.1 General
  • 6.2.2 Warrants
  • 6.3 Route Considerations
  • 6.3.1 Spacing of Interchanges
  • 6.3.2 Consistency of Interchange Form
  • 6.3.3 Route Continuity and Consistency
  • 6.4 Road Space Allocation and Lane Management
  • 6.4.1 General
  • 6.4.2 High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes
  • 6.4.3 Integration of Public Transport
  • 6.4.4 Pedestrians and Cyclists
  • 6.5 Interchange Forms
  • 6.5.1 General Categories
  • 6.5.2 System Interchanges
  • 6.5.3 Service Interchanges
  • 6.5.4 Characteristics of Service Interchange Types
  • 6.5.5 Interchange Selection Factors
  • 6.6 Ramp Layouts
  • 6.6.1 General
  • 6.6.2 Speed Management for Ramps
  • 6.6.3 Lane Numbers
  • 6.6.4 Access Control
  • 6.6.5 Ramps on Two-lane, Two-way Freeways or Motorways
  • 6.6.6 Ramp Spacing
  • 6.6.7 Major Forks
  • 6.6.8 Branch Connections
  • 6.7 Basic Lane Numbers and Lane Balance
  • 6.7.1 Basic Lane Numbers
  • 6.7.2 Lane Balance
  • 6.8 Traffic Considerations
  • 6.8.1 General
  • 6.8.2 Traffic Data Requirements
  • 6.8.3 Operating Speeds
  • 6.8.4 Level of Service
  • 6.9 Ramp Metering
  • 6.10 Signing, Marking and Lighting
7 Rail Crossings
  • 7.1 Levels of Protection
  • 7.2 Rail Crossings At-grade
  • 7.2.1 Passive Protection
  • 7.2.2 Active Protection
  • 7.3 Grade Separated Vehicle Crossings
  • 7.4 Level Crossing Treatments
  • 7.5 Rail Level Crossings at or near Road Intersections
  • 7.5.1 Urban Rail Crossings
  • 7.5.2 Rural Rail Crossings
  • 7.6 Path Crossings of Railways
  • 7.6.1 Path Crossings – Pedestrian
  • 7.6.2 Path Crossings – Shared
  • 7.6.3 Grade Separated Path Crossings
  • 7.6.4 Impaired Persons
  • 7.7 Lighting at Rail Crossings
  • 7.8 Selection of Treatment
  • 7.8.1 ALCAM Model
  • 7.8.2 Risk Exposure Score
  • 7.8.3 Likelihood Bands
  • 7.8.4 Application of ALCAM
8 Pedestrian and Cyclist Crossings of Roads
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 Types of Crossings
  • 8.1.2 Basics of Crossings
  • 8.2 Mid-block Crossings on Roads
  • 8.2.1 General Considerations for All Road Users
  • 8.2.2 Bicycle Path Terminal Treatments at Road Crossings
  • 8.2.3 Crossings at Signalised Facilities
  • 8.2.4 Road Crossings by Off-road Bicycle Paths in Rural and Outer Urban Areas
  • 8.2.5 Road Crossings Used by Horse Riders
  • 8.3 Intersections of Paths with Paths
References
Appendix A Signalised intersection Guidance
Commentary 1
Commentary 2
  • C2.1 Number of Stand-up Lanes on a Minor Road at Unsignalised Intersections
Commentary 3
Commentary 4
Commentary 5
  • C5.1 Warrants for Unsignalised Intersection Turn Treatments
  • C5.2 Development of the Warrants
  • C5.3 Application of the Warrants
Commentary 6
Commentary 7
Commentary 8
Commentary 9
Commentary 10
Commentary 11
Commentary 12
Commentary 13
Commentary 14
Commentary 15
Commentary 16
Commentary 17
Commentary 18
Commentary 19
Commentary 20
Commentary 21
Commentary 22
Commentary 23
Commentary 24
Commentary 25
Commentary 26
  • C26.1 Left-turn Movements
  • C26.1.1 Semi-direct Ramps
  • C26.1.2 Outer Connectors
  • C26.2 Right-turn Movements
  • C26.2.1 Direct Ramps
  • C26.2.2 Semi-direct Ramps
  • C26.2.3 Loop Ramps
  • C26.2.4 Diagonal Ramps
Commentary 27
Commentary 28
Commentary 29
Commentary 30

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