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Guide to Traffic Management Part 11: Parking (2017 Edition)

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Publication no: AGTM11-17 Pages: 201
Published: 23 January 2017


Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 11: Parking is concerned with the parking management process. It provides guidance for planners and engineers to ensure that parking is provided in a safe and efficient manner and with due regard to considerations of access to and the impact on the wider road and transport system.

Part 11 presents guidelines for determining the demand for and supply of parking and it provides a parking policy framework – how the demand should be addressed. The implementation of on-street and off-street parking for all road users including parking controls in urban centres is addressed as is parking on rural roads and at park-and-ride facilities. Electronic parking guidance systems and signs are also described.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Scope of this Guide
  • 1.2 Definition of Parking
2. Principles of Parking Management
  • 2.1 Changing Approach to Parking
  • 2.2 Key Principles
  • 2.2.1 Principle 1: Parking Supply and Demand
  • 2.2.2 Principle 2: Occupancy or Utilisation
  • 2.2.3 Principle 3: Duration and Turnover
  • 2.2.4 Principle 4: Enforcement
  • 2.2.5 Principle 5: Partnership
  • 2.2.6 Education and Information
  • 2.3 Pay Parking
  • 2.3.1 General Principles
  • 2.3.2 Pay Parking Objectives
  • 2.3.3 Guidelines to Efficient Pay Parking Pricing
  • 2.3.4 On-street Parking Management
3. Demand for Parking
  • 3.1 Parking Demand
  • 3.2 Factors Affecting Demand
  • 3.2.1 Geographic Location
  • 3.2.2 Types of Land Use
  • 3.2.3 Availability and Attractiveness of Public Transport and Other Alternatives to Car Use
  • 3.2.4 Accessibility and Attractiveness of the Parking Facilities
  • 3.2.5 Demographic/Socio Economic Patterns
  • 3.2.6 Price Structure
  • 3.2.7 Time of the Day, Weekly and Seasonal Variations
  • 3.3 Mixed Land Use and Shared Parking
  • 3.3.1 Shared and Reciprocal Parking for Mixed-use Developments
4. Supply of Parking
  • 4.1 Different Categories of Parking
  • 4.1.1 Off-street Parking
  • 4.1.2 On-street Parking
  • 4.1.3 Other Categories
  • 4.2 Methods of Determining Supply
  • 4.2.1 Minimum Parking Requirements
  • 4.2.2 Parking Provision Standards
  • 4.2.3 Supply Based on a Forecast of Demand
  • 4.3 Area Required
  • 4.4 The Cost of Providing Parking
  • 4.5 Major Types of Parking Facility
5. Parking Policy Framework
  • 5.1 Why Have a Parking Policy?
  • 5.2 Parking Policy Objectives
  • 5.3 Parking Policy Tools
  • 5.4 Consultative Planning and Policy
  • 5.5 Time Restrictions, Pricing and Enforcement
  • 5.6 Linking Technology to Policy
  • 5.7 Parking Precinct Plans
  • 5.8 Parking Policy Checklist
6. Parking and the Environment
  • 6.1 Urban Design Considerations
  • 6.2 Environmental Impacts of Parking
  • 6.3 Driverless Vehicles
7. Off-Street Parking
  • 7.1 The Location of Off-street Parking Facilities Entrances and Exits
  • 7.2 Classification of Off-street Parking Facilities
  • 7.3 Parking Facility Layout
  • 7.4 Parking Facility Access Design
  • 7.4.1 Categories of Access Driveways
  • 7.4.2 Access Driveway Characteristics
  • 7.5 General Amenities and Other Considerations
  • 7.5.1 Lighting
  • 7.5.2 Pedestrian Treatments
  • 7.5.3 Parcel Pickup
  • 7.5.4 Shopping Trolley Requirements
  • 7.5.5 Signs and Pavement Markings
  • 7.5.6 Road Humps
  • 7.6 Specific Requirements of Car Parking Structures
  • 7.6.1 Column Location and Spacing
  • 7.6.2 Headroom
  • 7.6.3 Express Exit Ramps
  • 7.6.4 Provision for Pedestrians
  • 7.6.5 Underground Car Parking Structures
  • 7.6.6 Mechanical Garages
  • 7.6.7 Electric Charging Stations
  • 7.7 Parking Control and Payment Technologies
  • 7.8 Parking Control Systems (PCS)
  • 7.8.1 Ticket Machines
  • 7.8.2 Pay and Display
  • 7.8.3 Pay by Space
  • 7.8.4 Pay by Plate
  • 7.8.5 Virtual Phone-based Systems (Apps)
  • 7.8.6 Single Space Electronic Meters
  • 7.9 Parking Payment Systems
  • 7.9.1 Cash
  • 7.9.2 Credit Card
  • 7.9.3 Mobile Phone
  • 7.9.4 Mobile Phone Only
  • 7.9.5 Near Field Communication (NFC)
  • 7.9.6 Virtual Permits
  • 7.9.7 QR Code
  • 7.10 Payment Compliance Requirements
  • 7.10.1 PCI Compliance
  • 7.10.2 Cashless EMV Payment Systems
  • 7.11 Parking Guidance Systems (PGS)
  • 7.11.1 In-ground Sensors
  • 7.11.2 Parking Guidance
  • 7.11.3 Variable Message Signs (VMS)
  • 7.11.4 Space Counting Systems
  • 7.11.5 Parking Apps
  • 7.12 Enforcement Compliance
  • 7.12.1 Hand Held Devices (Handhelds)
  • 7.12.2 Mobile Camera Only Systems
  • 7.12.3 Fixed Camera Systems
  • 7.13 Information Systems
  • 7.14 Technology for Unpriced Parking
  • 7.15 Parking Provisions for Other Road User Groups
  • 7.15.1 Trucks
  • 7.15.2 Buses and Coaches
  • 7.15.3 Motorcycles
  • 7.15.4 People with Disabilities
  • 7.15.5 Bicycles
  • 7.15.6 Caravans, Trailers and Recreational Vehicles
  • 7.15.7 Emergency Vehicles
  • 7.15.8 Taxis
  • 7.15.9 Car Share
  • 7.15.10 Other Special Purpose User Parking
  • 7.16 Special Event Parking
8. On-Street Parking
  • 8.1 Priorities for the Use of On-street Space
  • 8.1.1 Kerbside Lane Management
  • 8.2 General Priorities for Allocation of Parking Space
  • 8.2.1 Parking Hierarchy
  • 8.2.2 Parking User Groups
  • 8.2.3 Public Transport
  • 8.2.4 Loading
  • 8.2.5 Disability Permit Holders
  • 8.2.6 Drop-off/Pick-up
  • 8.2.7 Short to Medium-stay
  • 8.2.8 Long-stay/Commuter
  • 8.2.9 Park and Ride
  • 8.2.10 Residents
  • 8.2.11 Cyclists
  • 8.2.12 Motorcycle and Scooter Parking
  • 8.3 Commercial Centre Hierarchy Example
  • 8.4 Provision of Parallel Kerbside Parking
  • 8.5 Provision of Angle Kerbside Parking
  • 8.5.1 Design of Angled Parking
  • 8.5.2 Front-to-kerb versus Rear-to-kerb Angle Parking
  • 8.6 Provision of Centre-of-road Parking
  • 8.7 On-street Regulatory Parking Restrictions
  • 8.7.1 Provision of Parking Restrictions
  • 8.7.2 Provisions for Pedestrians
  • 8.7.3 Conflict between Parking and Waste Removal Operations
  • 8.7.4 Protection of Parking from Through Traffic
  • 8.7.5 Unsafe Parking Locations
  • 8.8 Lighting
  • 8.9 Provision for Other Road Users
  • 8.9.1 Trucks
  • 8.9.2 Buses and Coaches
  • 8.9.3 Motorcycles
  • 8.9.4 People with Disabilities
  • 8.9.5 Bicycles
  • 8.9.6 Caravans, Trailers and Recreational Vehicles
  • 8.9.7 Emergency Vehicles
  • 8.9.8 Taxis
  • 8.10 Parking Control Measures
  • 8.10.1 Linear Parking Control
  • 8.10.2 Area Parking Control
  • 8.10.3 Pay Parking
  • 8.10.4 Permit Parking
  • 8.10.5 Residential Parking Zones
  • 8.10.6 Parking Permit Allocation and Fees
  • 8.10.7 Types of Permit Parking Schemes
  • 8.10.8 Common Features of Permit Schemes
  • 8.10.9 New Developments
  • 8.10.10 Technology and Enforcement
  • 8.10.11 Implementing Residential Parking Zones
  • 8.10.12 Enforcement
9. Rural Parking
  • 9.1 Rest Areas
  • 9.1.1 Categories of Rest Areas
  • 9.2 Other Roadside Amenities
10. Park-and-Ride
11. Parking Guidance and Control Devices
  • 11.1 Signs and Pavement Markings
  • 11.1.1 Linear Parking Control Signs
  • 11.1.2 Area Parking Control Signs
  • 11.1.3 Parking Direction Signs
  • 11.1.4 Pavement Markings
  • 11.2 Electronic Guidance Systems
12. Duty of Care and Risk Management
  • 12.1 Risk and Safety
  • 12.1.1 Risk Management
  • 12.1.2 Conditions of Parking
References
Commentary 1
  • C1.1 Shared Parking Advantages and Disadvantages
  • C1.2 Complementary Uses
Commentary 2
  • C2.1 Car Parking Provision Rates
  • C2.2 Review of Parking Provisions in Victoria
  • C2.2.1 Car Parking
  • C2.3 Bicycle Parking Provision Rates
  • C2.4 Land Costs
  • C2.5 Design and Development Costs
  • C2.6 Construction Costs
  • C2.7 Maintenance and Operational Costs
  • C2.8 Decommissioning Costs
  • C2.9 Costs of Environmental and Aesthetic Impacts
Commentary 3
Commentary 4
  • C4.1 Making Allowance for Shared Parking Effects
  • C4.2 Regulating Short-stay and Long-stay Parking
  • C4.3 Unbundle Parking
  • C4.4 Parking Allowance Maximums
  • C4.5 Parking Supply ‘Ceilings’ and Parking Supply ‘Freezes’
  • C4.6 Cash-in-lieu of Parking Provision
  • C4.7 Transport Management Associations and Parking Brokerage Services
  • C4.8 Encourage Higher Vehicle Occupancy
  • C4.9 Enhance the Attractiveness of Alternative Modes of Transport
  • C4.10 Encourage the Development of Company Travel Plans
  • C4.11 Modifying Parking Requirements Relative to the Proximity of Public Transport
  • C4.11.1 Case Study Example: Town of Vincent, Western Australia
  • C4.12 Introduce (or Adjust) the Pricing of Parking Facilities
  • C4.13 ‘Cash-out Free Parking’ Programs
  • C4.14 Tax Parking Facilities
  • C4.15 Parking Levies
  • C4.15.1 Case Study Example: The Sydney Parking Levy
  • C4.15.2 Case Study Example: The Perth Parking Levy
  • C4.16 Parking Benefit Districts
  • C4.17 Price Relativities for Short-stay and Long-stay Parking
  • C4.18 Parking Policy Zones
  • C4.19 Location-specific Standards
  • C4.20 Parking Permit Schemes
Commentary 5
Commentary 6
  • C6.1 Small Car Bays
Commentary 7
  • C7.1 Education and Information
  • C7.2 Benefits and Drawbacks
  • C7.2.1 Parking Control Systems (PCS) – Ticket Machines Pay by Space or Virtual Phone-Based Systems
  • C7.2.2 Customer Service
  • C7.2.3 Efficiency
  • C7.3 Parking Payment Systems – Cash and Credit Card
  • C7.3.1 Customer Service
  • C7.3.2 Efficiency
  • C7.4 Parking Payment Systems – Mobile Phone
  • C7.4.1 Customer Service
  • C7.4.2 Efficiency
  • C7.5 Parking Guidance Systems – In-ground Sensors Wayfinding Space Indicator Signs
  • C7.6 Compliance – Enforcement Technologies
  • C7.7 Information Systems
Commentary 8
  • C8.1 Trials in Other Cities
  • C8.1.1 Westminster, UK
  • C8.1.2 Nottingham, UK
  • C8.1.3 San Francisco, USA
  • C8.1.4 Milan, Italy
  • C8.1.5 Australian Cities
Commentary 9
  • C9.1 Location of Bicycle Parking Facilities
  • C9.2 Types of Bicycle Parking Facilities
  • C9.2.1 Bicycle Lockers
  • C9.2.2 Bicycle Enclosures
  • C9.2.3 Bicycle Parking Rails
  • C9.3 Signs and Pavement Markings
  • C9.4 End-of-trip Facilities
Commentary 10
  • C10.1 Meter/Multi-bay Parking
  • C10.2 Coupon Parking
Commentary 11
  • Funding strategies
  • Legislative and enforcement strategies
  • Town planning strategies
  • Simple strategies
  • Signs and lines strategies
  • Engineering strategies
  • Complementary strategies
  • Route management strategies
Commentary 12
  • C12.1 Spacing Requirements for Rest Areas
  • C12.2 Rest Area Site Location
  • C12.3 Rest Area Access Requirements
  • C12.4 Rest Area Design Requirements
  • C12.5 Rest Area Signs
  • C12.6 Provision for People with Disabilities in Rest Areas
  • C12.7 Camping and Length of Stay
  • C12.8 Proximity of Rest Areas to Towns
Commentary 13
  • C13.1 Scenic Lookouts
  • C13.2 Information Bays
  • C13.3 Heavy Vehicle Assembly Areas
  • C13.4 Interception Sites
  • C13.5 Rural School Bus Stops
  • C13.6 Roadside Vending Sites
Commentary 14
  • C14.1 Success Factors for Park-and-ride
  • Example: National Bus Company's Doncaster Park-and-ride, Melbourne
  • C14.2 Demand for Park-and-ride
  • C14.3 The Optimum Size of Park-and-ride Facilities
  • C14.4 Design of Park-and-ride Facilities
  • C14.5 Other Park-and-ride Factors
  • Kiss-and-ride
  • Safety and security of park-and-ride facilities
  • Passenger information
  • Multi-occupancy vehicles
  • C14.6 Costs of Provision of Park-and-ride
Commentary 15
  • C15.1 Objectives of Electronic Parking Guidance Systems
  • C15.2 Types of Parking Guidance Systems
  • On-route parking guidance systems
  • On-site parking guidance systems
Commentary 16
  • C16.1 Automatic Vehicle Identification
  • Benefits of AVI
  • Potential problems with AVI
  • C16.2 Licence Plate Recognition
  • Benefits of LPR
  • Potential problems with LPR
  • C16.3 A Cashless Society
  • C16.4 Mobile Telephony
  • C16.5 In-vehicle Route Guidance Systems
  • C16.6 Trip Planning Systems
  • C16.7 Enforcement Technologies
  • C16.8 Technical Compatibility

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