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Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides (2014)

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Publication no: AP-G88-14 Pages: 177
Published: 15 April 2014


Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides contains information that relates to the planning, design and traffic management of cycling facilities and is sourced from Austroads Guides, primarily the Guide to Road Design, the Guide to Traffic Management and the Guide to Road Safety.

It is intended as a guide for engineers, planners and designers involved in the planning, design, construction and management of cycling facilities. Throughout the document practitioners are referred to relevant Austroads Guides for additional information.

Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides provides information about:

  • planning and traffic management considerations
  • design guidance relating to on-road and off-road bicycle facilities 
  • construction and maintenance considerations 
  • provision for cyclists at structures, traffic control devices and end of trip facilities.

This is the second edition of Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides. This edition has been revised to ensure its currency and to clarify and highlight links to other Austroads Guides. Key updates include:

  • improving cross-references to other Austroads guidance, including summary cross-reference tables at the beginning of each section
  • providing broader consideration of other Austroads Guides applicable to cycling
  • updating the report to reflect new editions of the Guide to Traffic Management (Parts 3, 6 and 9) and Guide to Road Safety (Part 1)
  • enhancing or clarifying guidance for topics such as path crossings of roads, access considerations at freeway interchanges, construction and maintenance considerations and pavements for cycling.

The full publication and a quick reference guide are available. In both documents, the Guide icons are linked to the relevant guide on this website.


Table of Contents

Summary
Contents
1. Introduction
  • 1.1 General
  • 1.2 How to use this Document
  • 1.3 Role of Cycling in Transport
  • 1.4 Safe System Approach
2. Planning and Traffic Management for Cycling
  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Bicycle Strategies and Strategic Bicycle Plans
  • 2.2.1 National Cycling Strategy
  • 2.2.2 State or Territory Bicycle Strategy
  • 2.2.3 Local Strategic Bicycle Plan
  • 2.3 Integrated and Multi-modal Planning
  • 2.4 Bicycle Network Management
  • 2.4.1 Introduction
  • 2.4.2 Purpose of a Bicycle Network
  • 2.4.3 Functions of a Bicycle Network
  • 2.4.4 Objectives of a Bicycle Network
  • 2.4.5 Network and Route Mapping
  • 2.4.6 Categories of Cyclists and their Network Requirements
  • 2.5 Bicycle Programs
  • 2.5.1 Behavioural Aspects Programs
  • 2.6 Traffic Studies and Bicycle Surveys
  • 2.7 Type of Bicycle Facility Required
  • 2.8 Combining Bicycle Travel with Public Transport
  • 2.9 Local Area Traffic Management
  • 2.10 Traffic Management in Activity Centres
  • 2.10.1 Planning Context for Cycling in Activity Centres
  • 2.10.2 Bicycles in Activity Centres
  • 2.10.3 Cycling Implications for Traffic Management Practice in Activity Centres
  • 2.11 Traffic Impacts of Developments
3. Bicycle Rider Requirements
  • 3.1 General
  • 3.2 Space to Ride
  • 3.3 Smooth Surface
  • 3.4 Speed Maintenance
  • 3.5 Sight Lines
  • 3.6 Connectivity
  • 3.7 Information
4. Bicycle Facilities On-road (Mid-block)
  • 4.1 General
  • 4.1.1 Types of On-road Bicycle Facilities
  • 4.2 Key Design Criteria and Considerations
  • 4.2.1 Road Geometry
  • 4.2.2 Gradients
  • 4.2.3 Cross-section and Clearances
  • 4.3 Provision for Cyclists on Roads
  • 4.3.1 General
  • 4.3.2 Exclusive Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.3 Wide Kerbside Lanes
  • 4.3.4 Sealed Shoulders
  • 4.3.5 Bus/Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.6 Advisory Treatments
  • 4.4 Types of Bicycle Lane Treatments
  • 4.4.1 Bicycle/Car Parking Lanes
  • 4.4.2 Contra-flow Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.4.3 Separated Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.4.4 ‘Peak Period’ Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.4.5 Protected Two-way Lanes
  • 4.5 Finding Space for Bicycle Lane Treatments
  • 4.6 Supplementary Road Treatments
  • 4.6.1 Curves and Turns
  • 4.6.2 Lane Channelisation
  • 4.7 Ramps
  • 4.8 Provision for Cycling on Freeways
  • 4.8.1 General
  • 4.9 Local Area Traffic Management Schemes
5. Provision for Cycling at Road Intersections and Interchanges
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Issues at Intersections for Cyclists
  • 5.2.1 General
  • 5.3 Signalised Road Intersections
  • 5.3.1 General
  • 5.3.2 Traffic Management Guidelines
  • 5.3.3 The Six Elements
  • 5.3.4 Bicycle Lanes
  • 5.3.5 Head-start and Expanded Storage Areas
  • 5.3.6 Hook Turn Storage Boxes and Hook Turn Restrictions
  • 5.3.7 Left-turn Treatments
  • 5.3.8 Bypass of T-intersection
  • 5.3.9 Crossings at Signalised Intersections
  • 5.3.10 Signalised Mid-block Crossings
  • 5.4 Unsignalised Road Intersections
  • 5.4.1 General
  • 5.4.2 Basic and Channelised Intersections
  • 5.4.3 Channelised Left-turn Treatment
  • 5.4.4 Refuge within an Unsignalised Intersection
  • 5.5 Roundabouts
  • 5.5.1 Introduction
  • 5.5.2 Local Roads – No Bicycle Facility
  • 5.5.3 Bicycle Lanes at Single-lane Roundabouts
  • 5.5.4 Multi-lane Roundabouts on Arterial Roads
  • 5.5.5 Bicycle Paths and Shared Paths at Roundabouts
  • 5.6 Road Interchanges
  • 5.6.1 General
  • 5.6.2 At-grade Treatment at Interchanges
  • 5.6.3 Grade Separation of Ramps for Cyclists
  • 5.6.4 Alternative Routes
6. Provision for Cycling at Rail Crossings
  • 6.1 General
  • 6.2 Types of Rail Crossings
  • 6.3 Key Requirements and Considerations
  • 6.3.1 On-road Railway Level Crossings
  • 6.4 Path Crossings
  • 6.4.1 Grade Separation for Paths
7. Paths for Cycling
  • 7.1 General
  • 7.2 Types of Path
  • 7.3 Choice of Appropriate Type of Path
  • 7.4 Location of Paths for Cycling
  • 7.5 Path Design Criteria for Bicycles
  • 7.5.1 General
  • 7.5.2 Bicycle Operating Speed
  • 7.5.3 Horizontal Alignment
  • 7.5.4 Width
  • 7.5.5 Vertical Alignment
  • 7.5.6 Crossfall and Drainage
  • 7.5.7 Clearances, Batters and Fences
  • 7.5.8 Sight Distance
  • 7.6 Path Crossings of Roads
  • 7.6.1 General
  • 7.6.2 Grade Separated Bicycle Path Crossing
  • 7.6.3 Signalised Bicycle Path Crossing
  • 7.6.4 Unsignalised Bicycle Path Crossing
  • 7.6.5 Path Approach Design Criteria
  • 7.6.6 Types of Crossings of Side Roads
  • 7.7 Intersections of Paths with Paths
  • 7.7.1 Considerations
  • 7.7.2 Design of Intersections of Paths with Paths
  • 7.8 Path Terminal Treatments
  • 7.9 Fences and Road Safety Barriers
  • 7.9.1 Fences
  • 7.9.2 Road Safety Barriers
  • 7.10 Road and Path Lighting
8. Cycling Provision at Structures
  • 8.1 General
  • 8.2 Bridges and Underpasses
  • 8.3 Road Tunnels
9. Traffic Control and Communication Devices
  • 9.1 General
  • 9.2 Signs
  • 9.2.1 Signing of Bicycle Routes
  • 9.3 Pavement Markings
  • 9.3.1 Roads
  • 9.3.2 Paths
  • 9.4 Pavement Surface Colour
  • 9.5 Cyclists at Traffic Signals
  • 9.5.1 Traffic Signal Displays for Cyclists
  • 9.5.2 Bicycle Detection
  • 9.5.3 Treatments for Cyclists at Traffic Signals
10. Construction and Maintenance Considerations at Cycling Facilities
  • 10.1 General
  • 10.2 Pavements for Cycling
  • 10.3 Maintaining Cycling Facilities
  • 10.3.1 Bicycle Safety Audits
  • 10.3.2 Further Guidance
11. Bicycle Parking and End-of-trip Facilities
  • 11.1 General
  • 11.2 Bicycle Parking
  • 11.2.1 General
  • 11.2.2 General Requirements of Devices
  • 11.2.3 Location of Bicycle Parking Facilities
  • 11.3 On-street Bicycle Parking
  • 11.4 Types of Parking Devices
  • 11.5 Signs and Markings Showing Location and Purpose of Parking Facilities
  • 11.6 Showers, Lockers and Security
References
Appendix A Bicycle Network Evaluation Example
  • A.1 General
  • A.2 Impact of Cycle Use
  • A.3 Benefit-cost Evaluation
  • A.3.1 Other Factors Affecting Level of Benefits
  • A.4 An Overview of this Bicycle Example
Appendix B Australian Bicycle Council Website
Appendix C Bicycle Survey Methods
  • C.1 General
  • C.2 Manual Bicycle Counts
  • C.3 Questionnaire Surveys
  • C.4 Bicycle Detection
  • C.5 Video
  • C.6 Travel Time and Delay Studies
  • C.7 Behaviour and Conflict Studies
  • C.8 Data Analysis and Results
  • C.9 Future Development
Appendix D Human Powered Vehicles
Appendix E Construction and Maintenance
  • E.1 General
  • E.2 Path Maintenance Requirements
  • E.3 Provision at Works
  • E.3.1 Signing and Delineation at Work Sites on or Adjacent to Paths or On-road Facilities
  • E.4 Pavements for Cycling
  • E.4.1 Pavements for Bicycle Paths
  • E.4.2 Bituminous Surface Pavements
  • E.4.3 Concrete Pavements
  • E.4.4 Unsealed Paths
  • E.4.5 Timber Surfaces
Appendix F Bicycle Safety Audit Checklist
  • F.1 Introduction
  • F.2 General Requirements for Roads and Paths
  • F.3 Alignment and Cross-section
  • F.4 Signs, Delineation and Lighting
  • F.5 Riding Surface
  • F.6 Vegetation, Maintenance and Construction
  • F.7 Traffic Signals
  • F.8 Physical Objects
  • F.9 Paths
  • F.9.1 General
  • F.9.2 Alignment and Cross-section
  • F.9.3 Intersections
  • F.10 Roads
  • F.10.1 General
  • F.10.2 Intersections
Appendix G Example of Bicycle Safety Audit
  • G.1 Background
  • G.2 Paths on the North/East Side
  • G.3 Paths on the South/West Side
Appendix H Bicycle Parking Provision Rates

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