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Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides (2017 Edition)

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Publication no: AP-G88-17 Pages: 203
Published: 07 June 2017


Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides contains information that relates to the planning, design and traffic management of cycling facilities and is sourced from Austroads Guides, primarily the Guide to Road Design, the Guide to Traffic Management and the Guide to Road Safety.

The document is intended as a guide for engineers, planners and designers involved in the planning, design, construction and management of cycling facilities. Throughout the document practitioners are referred to relevant Austroads Guides for additional information.

The publication provides:

  • an overview of planning and traffic management considerations and cross‑references to other Austroads Guides and texts for further detailed information
  • a summary of design guidance and criteria relating to on‑road and off‑road bicycle facilities together with a high level of cross‑referencing to the relevant Austroads Guides for further information
  • information and cross-references on the provision for cyclists at structures, traffic control devices, construction and maintenance considerations and end-of-trip facilities.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
  • 1.1 General
  • 1.2 How to use this Document
  • 1.3 Role of Cycling in Transport
  • 1.4 Safe System Approach
2. Planning and Traffic Management for Cycling
  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Bicycle Strategies and Strategic Bicycle Plans
  • 2.2.1 National Cycling Strategy
  • 2.2.2 State or Territory Bicycle Strategies
  • 2.2.3 Local Strategic Bicycle Plans
  • 2.3 Integrated and Multi-modal Planning
  • 2.4 Bicycle Network Management
  • 2.4.1 Introduction
  • 2.4.2 Role of a Bicycle Network
  • 2.4.3 Management Principles of a Bicycle Network
  • 2.4.4 Network and Route Mapping
  • 2.4.5 Categories of Cyclists and Their Trips
  • 2.5 Bicycle Programs
  • 2.5.1 Behavioural Programs
  • 2.6 Traffic Studies and Bicycle Surveys
  • 2.7 Type of Bicycle Facility Required
  • 2.8 Combining Bicycle Travel with Public Transport
  • 2.9 Local Area Traffic Management
  • 2.10 Traffic Management in Activity Centres
  • 2.10.1 Planning Context for Cycling in Activity Centres
  • 2.10.2 Bicycles in Activity Centres
  • 2.10.3 Cycling Implications for Traffic Management Practice in Activity Centres
  • 2.11 Traffic Impacts of Developments
3. Bicycle Rider Requirements
  • 3.1 General
  • 3.2 Space to Ride
  • 3.3 Smooth Surface
  • 3.4 Speed Maintenance
  • 3.5 Sight Distance
  • 3.6 Connectivity
  • 3.7 Information
4. Bicycle Facilities On-road (Mid-block)
  • 4.1 General
  • 4.1.1 Types of On-road Bicycle Facilities
  • 4.2 Key Design Criteria and Considerations
  • 4.2.1 Road Geometry
  • 4.2.2 Gradients
  • 4.2.3 Cross-section and Clearances
  • 4.3 Provision for Cyclists on Roads
  • 4.3.1 General
  • 4.3.2 Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.3 Wide Kerbside Lanes
  • 4.3.4 Sealed Shoulders
  • 4.3.5 Bus/Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.6 Advisory Treatments
  • 4.3.7 Bicycle/Car Parking Lanes
  • 4.3.8 Contra-flow Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.9 Separated Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.10 ‘Peak Period’ Bicycle Lanes
  • 4.3.11 Protected Two-way Lanes
  • 4.4 Finding Space for Bicycle Lane Treatments
  • 4.5 Supplementary Road Treatments
  • 4.5.1 Curves and Turns
  • 4.5.2 Lane Channelisation
  • 4.6 Ramps
  • 4.7 Provision for Cycling on Freeways
  • 4.8 Local Area Traffic Management (LATM) Schemes
5. Provision for Cycling at Road Intersections and Interchanges
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Issues at Intersections for Cyclists
  • 5.2.1 General
  • 5.3 Signalised Road Intersections
  • 5.3.1 General
  • 5.3.2 Traffic Management Guidelines
  • 5.3.3 The Six Elements
  • 5.3.4 Bicycle Lanes
  • 5.3.5 Head-start and Expanded Storage Areas
  • 5.3.6 Hook Turn Storage Boxes and Hook Turn Restrictions
  • 5.3.7 Left-turn Treatments
  • 5.3.8 Bypass of a T-intersection
  • 5.3.9 Crossings at Signalised Intersections
  • 5.3.10 Signalised Mid-block Crossings
  • 5.4 Unsignalised Road Intersections
  • 5.4.1 General
  • 5.4.2 Basic and Channelised Intersections
  • 5.4.3 Channelised Left-turn Treatment
  • 5.4.4 Refuge within an Unsignalised Intersection
  • 5.5 Roundabouts
  • 5.5.1 Introduction
  • 5.5.2 Safety Analysis of Roundabouts for Cyclists
  • 5.5.3 Designing Roundabouts for Cyclists
  • 5.5.4 Roads with Shared Traffic
  • 5.5.5 Multilane Roundabouts on Arterial Roads
  • 5.5.6 Bicycle Paths and Shared Paths at Roundabouts
  • 5.5.7 Other Considerations
  • 5.6 Road Interchanges
  • 5.6.1 General
  • 5.6.2 At-grade Treatment at Interchanges
  • 5.6.3 Grade Separation of Ramps for Cyclists
  • 5.6.4 Alternative Routes
6. Provision for Cycling at Rail Crossings
  • 6.1 General
  • 6.2 Types of Rail Crossings
  • 6.3 Key Requirements and Considerations
  • 6.3.1 On-road Railway Level Crossings
  • 6.4 Path Crossings
  • 6.4.1 Grade Separation for Paths
7. Paths for Cycling
  • 7.1 General
  • 7.2 Types of Path
  • 7.3 Choice of Appropriate Type of Path
  • 7.4 Location of Paths for Cycling
  • 7.5 Path Design Criteria for Bicycles
  • 7.5.1 General
  • 7.5.2 Bicycle Operating Speed
  • 7.5.3 Horizontal Curvature
  • 7.5.4 Width
  • 7.5.5 Vertical Alignment
  • 7.5.6 Crossfall and Drainage Considerations
  • 7.5.7 Clearances, Batters and Fences
  • 7.5.8 Sight Distance
  • 7.6 Path Crossings of Roads
  • 7.6.1 General
  • 7.6.2 Grade Separated Bicycle Path Crossing
  • 7.6.3 Signalised Bicycle Path Crossing
  • 7.6.4 Unsignalised Bicycle Path Crossing
  • 7.6.5 Path Approach Design Criteria
  • 7.6.6 Types of Crossings of Local Access Roads
  • 7.7 Intersections of Paths with Paths
  • 7.7.1 Considerations
  • 7.7.2 Design of Intersections of Paths with Paths
  • 7.7.3 Special Treatments for Intersections of Paths with Paths
  • 7.8 Path Terminal Treatments
  • 7.9 Fences and Road Safety Barriers
  • 7.9.1 Fences
  • 7.9.2 Road Safety Barriers
  • 7.10 Lighting
8. Cycling Provision at Structures
  • 8.1 General
  • 8.2 Bridges and Underpasses
  • 8.3 Road Tunnels
9. Traffic Control and Communication Devices
  • 9.1 General
  • 9.2 Signs
  • 9.2.1 Route Planning and Directional and Wayfinding Signage for Cyclists
  • 9.3 Pavement Markings
  • 9.3.1 Roads
  • 9.3.2 Paths
  • 9.4 Pavement Surface Colour
  • 9.5 Cyclists at Traffic Signals
  • 9.5.1 Traffic Signal Displays for Cyclists
  • 9.5.2 Bicycle Detection
  • 9.5.3 Treatments for Cyclists at Traffic Signals
10. Construction and Maintenance Considerations at Cycling Facilities
  • 10.1 General
  • 10.2 Pavements for Cycling
  • 10.3 Maintaining Cycling Facilities
  • 10.3.1 Bicycle Safety Audits
  • 10.3.2 Further Guidance
11. Bicycle Parking and End-of-trip Facilities
  • 11.1 General
  • 11.2 Bicycle Parking
  • 11.2.1 General
  • 11.2.2 General Requirements for Devices
  • 11.3 On-street Bicycle Parking
  • 11.4 Types of Parking Devices
  • General
  • Bicycle lockers
  • Bicycle enclosures
  • Bicycle parking rails
  • 11.4.1 Location of Bicycle Parking Facilities
  • 11.5 Signs and Markings Showing Location and Purpose of Parking Facilities
  • 11.6 Showers, Lockers and Security
  • 11.7 End-of-trip Facilities
References
Appendix A Bicycle Network Evaluation Example
  • A.1 General
  • A.2 Impact of Cycle Use
  • A.3 Benefit-cost Evaluation
  • A.3.1 Other Factors Affecting Level of Benefits
  • A.4 An Overview of this Bicycle Example
Appendix B Australian Bicycle Council Website
Appendix C Bicycle Survey Methods
  • C.1 General
  • C.2 Manual Bicycle Counts
  • C.3 Questionnaire Surveys
  • C.4 Bicycle Detection
  • C.5 Video
  • C.6 Travel Time and Delay Studies
  • C.7 Behaviour and Conflict Studies
  • C.8 Data Analysis and Results
  • C.9 Future Development
Appendix D Human Powered Vehicles
Appendix E Route Planning and Directional and Wayfinding Signage for Cyclists
  • E.1 Introduction
  • E.1.1 Application of the Guidelines
  • E.1.2 Signing Routes With and Without Cycle Infrastructure
  • E.2 Sign Designs
  • E.3 Directional Pavement Markings
  • E.4 Cycle Route Types
  • E.5 Developing a Directional Sign Plan
  • E.5.1 Identify Cycle Routes
  • E.5.2 Create a Focal Point Map
  • E.5.3 Identify any Named Facilities
  • E.5.4 Identify any Numbered Routes
  • E.5.5 Identify any Branded Routes
  • E.5.6 Conduct a Pre-sign Risk Assessment
  • E.5.7 Design Sign Layouts For Route Junctions
  • E.5.8 Create Sign Schedules
  • E.5.9 Prepare Sign Artwork for Manufacture
  • E.6 Signing Complex Intersections
  • E.7 Sign Installation
  • E.7.1 Sign Mounting and Clearances
  • E.7.2 Sight Distances and Sign Visibility
  • E.7.3 Sign Legibility and Lighting
  • E.7.4 Sign Stack Mounting Order
  • E.7.5 Integration with Existing Path Signs
  • E.7.6 Post-installation Check and Review
  • E.8 Sign Maintenance
  • E.8.1 Sign Defect Reporting Systems
  • E.9 Alternative Sign Design Options
Appendix F Construction and Maintenance
  • F.1 General
  • F.2 Path Maintenance Requirements
  • F.3 Pavements
  • F.3.1 Pavements for Bicycle Paths
  • F.3.2 Bituminous Surface Pavements
  • F.3.3 Concrete Pavements
  • F.3.4 Unsealed Paths
  • F.3.5 Timber Surfaces
  • F.3.6 Life Cycle Costing
  • F.4 Provision at Works
  • F.4.1 General
  • F.4.2 Signing and Delineation at Work Sites on or Adjacent to Paths
Appendix G Bicycle Safety Audit Checklist
  • G.1 Introduction
  • G.2 General Requirements for Roads and Paths
  • G.3 Alignment and Cross-section
  • G.4 Signs, Delineation and Lighting
  • G.5 Riding Surface
  • G.6 Vegetation, Maintenance and Construction
  • G.7 Traffic Signals
  • G.8 Physical Objects
  • G.9 Paths
  • G.9.1 General
  • G.9.2 Alignment and Cross-section
  • G.9.3 Intersections
  • G.10 Roads
  • G.10.1 General
  • G.10.2 Intersections
Appendix H Example of Bicycle Safety Audit
  • H.1 Background
  • H.2 Paths on the North/East Side
  • H.3 Paths on the South/West Side
Appendix I Bicycle Parking Provision Rates

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