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Safety of Disadvantaged Road Users

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Publication no: AP-R516-16 Pages: 117
Published: 20 April 2016


This publication reports the literature review and statistical analysis stages of a project to investigate the relationship between disadvantage and road casualties.

The literature review confirmed that many studies have demonstrated increasing traffic injuries with lower socioeconomic status, despite wide difference in their design and the measures used. A number of Australian and New Zealand studies confirm high fatality and injury rates among Indigenous, Maori and Pacific Islander groups. An exception to the general pattern was a Victorian finding that the highest injury rates are for the middle of the disadvantage range, corresponding with one of the main findings of the present study.

Policies and programs to improve road safety outcomes for disadvantaged communities were reviewed; there was little information available of their outcomes.

The analysis in the present study was based on matching postcodes from persons involved in crashes with an index of social disadvantage derived from census data. Within each Statistical Local Area (SLA), covering a small number of postcodes, the population was divided into two gender and four age groups. Fatalities or serious injuries in the crash database were allocated to these groups. Negative binomial models were developed for South Australia and Victoria, the only two jurisdictions for which serious injury and postcode data were available.

The models agreed well, but some features of the results were unexpected: the highest FSI rates were experienced by communities towards the middle of the range of disadvantage, and communities in the Inner Regional areas had unexpectedly high FSI rates. A negative binomial model was also developed for NSW based on all casualties rather than FSI since the database does not distinguish between serious and other injuries.

The model which emerged was very different from the others, showing a progressive increase in casualty rate with increasing disadvantage. Contrary to expectations, the injury rate for Major Cities was the highest, and injury rate for Very Remote communities was the lowest. Recommendations include proceeding with the final stage of the project to develop an overview of relevant programs with a view to developing a strategy for more comprehensive coverage, analysis of the South Australian and Victorian data using all injury crashes to determine if the results from NSW can be replicated, investigation of the reasons for the high FSI rate for Inner Regional communities, and monitoring future programs to address disadvantage.


Table of Contents

Summary
  • Literature review
  • The modelling study
  • Programs currently being offered to address disadvantage
  • Workshop discussions
  • Recommendations
1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Project Background
  • 1.2 Project Objectives and Structure
  • 1.3 Structure of the Report
2. Literature Review and Consultation
  • 2.1 Literature Search Method and Scope
  • 2.2 Disadvantage, Social Exclusion and their Relation to Road Safety
  • 2.2.1 Disadvantage in Relation to Current Thinking about Road Safety
  • 2.2.2 Limitations and Caveats Associated with the Disadvantage Paradigm
  • 2.3 The Effect of Disadvantage on Road Trauma
  • 2.3.1 Australia
  • 2.3.2 New Zealand
  • 2.3.3 Europe and Great Britain
  • 2.3.4 United States and Canada
  • 2.3.5 Korea
  • 2.3.6 Some Anomalous Results
  • 2.4 Environmental Factors
  • 2.4.1 Locational Factors
  • 2.4.2 Exposure
  • 2.4.3 Socioeconomic Gradient in Health
  • 2.5 Behavioural Factors
  • 2.5.1 Socio-cultural Factors
  • 2.5.2 Unlicensed Driving
  • 2.5.3 Drug and Alcohol Use
  • 2.6 Income, Employment and Education Status
  • 2.6.1 Low Income
  • 2.6.2 Unemployment
  • 2.6.3 Education and Occupational Status
  • 2.7 Interventions
  • 2.7.1 Australia and New Zealand
  • 2.7.2 Comprehensive Review of Provision for Road Safety in Disadvantaged Communities in England
  • 2.8 Policy Recommendations
  • 2.8.1 The ETSC Report
  • 2.8.2 TRL Report: Road User Safety and Disadvantage
  • 2.9 Consultation
3. Data and Method of Analysis
  • 3.1 Measuring Disadvantage in Australia and New Zealand
  • 3.1.1 Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)
  • 3.1.2 The New Zealand Social Deprivation Index
  • 3.1.3 Collective vs individual disadvantage
  • 3.2 Remoteness
  • 3.3 Crash Data
  • 3.3.1 Choice of Australian and New Zealand Jurisdictions
  • 3.3.2 Injury Severity Classification
  • 3.3.3 Information on Crash-involved Drivers and Riders Who Were Not Injured
  • 3.4 Persons Included in the Study
4. Preliminary Data Analysis
  • 4.1 Numbers of Drivers and Riders Involved in Casualty Crashes
  • 4.1.1 Victoria
  • 4.1.2 New South Wales
  • 4.1.3 South Australia
  • 4.1.4 Comparison
  • 4.2 Demographics of Drivers and Riders Involved in Casualty Crashes
  • 4.2.1 Remoteness
  • 4.2.2 Gender
  • 4.2.3 Age
  • 4.3 Crash Involvement Rates
5. Main Analysis
  • 5.1 Approach
  • 5.2 Database Development
  • 5.3 Database Exploration
  • 5.4 The Models
  • 5.5 South Australia and Victoria
  • 5.6 How do Crash Rates Vary with Disadvantage and Remoteness?
  • 5.7 NSW Crash Data Characteristics
  • 5.8 Discussion of Main Analysis
  • 5.8.1 The Effects of Disadvantage on the Incidence of Road Casualties
  • 5.8.2 The Effects of Remoteness on the Incidence of Road Casualties
  • 5.8.3 Communities Most at Risk
6. Programs to Address Disadvantage
  • 6.1 Victoria
  • 6.1.1 Information from VicRoads
  • 6.1.2 Other Material from the Internet
  • 6.2 New South Wales
  • 6.2.1 Other Material from the Internet
  • 6.3 South Australia
  • 6.3.1 Other Material from the Internet
  • 6.4 Western Australia
  • 6.4.1 Other Material from the Internet
  • 6.5 Tasmania
  • 6.6 Queensland
  • 6.7 ACT
  • 6.8 Northern Territory
  • 6.9 New Zealand
  • 6.10 Nation-wide Programs in Australia
  • 6.11 Gap Analysis
  • 6.11.1 Helping Drivers Obtain their Licence
  • 6.11.2 Other Programs
  • 6.11.3 Limitations of the Scanning Process
  • 6.11.4 Summary of the Main Gaps
7. Consultation
  • 7.1 Process
  • 7.2 Discussion Themes
  • 7.2.1 Recognition of the Issue
  • 7.2.2 Diversity
  • 7.2.3 Road Safety Focus
  • 7.2.4 Engagement
  • 7.2.5 Reach
  • 7.2.6 Vehicle and Infrastructure Issues
  • 7.2.7 Uncoordinated Approach
  • 7.2.8 Key Initiatives
  • 7.2.9 Safety Promotion Strategies
8. Discussion
  • 8.1 Literature Review
  • 8.2 The Modelling Study
  • 8.3 Programs to Address Disadvantage
  • 8.3.1 Workshop Discussions
  • 8.4 Conclusions
  • 8.4.1 Improving Road Safety for the Disadvantaged
  • 8.5 Recommendations
  • 8.5.1 Action
  • 8.5.2 Future Research
References
Appendix A Remoteness Area Boundaries
Appendix B Analysis of Risk Factors from Initial Analysis
B.1 Personal and Behavioural Risk Factors
B.2 Crash Types
B.3 Vehicle Risk Factors
B.4 Road and Environment Risk Factors
Appendix C Details of Programs Provided by Stakeholders
C.1 Victoria
C.2 New South Wales
C.3 South Australia
C.4 Western Australia
C.5 Tasmania
C.6 Queensland
C.7 New Zealand
Appendix D Queensland Community Road Safety Grants with a Disadvantaged Aspect

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